Countries and Nationalities in English

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Countries in English

We’ve put together a list of countries and their respective demonyms (inhabitant) and adjectives, so that you can look them up quickly and easily.

Don’t forget that country adjectives are always written with capital letters in English.

Country Demonym* Adjective
Afghanistan an Afghan Afghan
Albania an Albanian Albanian
Algeria an Algerian Algerian
Andorra an Andorran Andorran
Angola an Angolan Angolan
Antigua and Barbuda an Antiguan, a barbudan Antiguan, Barbudan
Argentina an Argentinian, an Argentine Argentinian, Argentine
Armenia an Armenian Armenian
Australia an Australian, an Aussie (colloquial) Australian
Austria an Austrian Austrian
Azerbaijan an Azerbaijani Azerbaijani
The Bahamas a Bahamian Bahamian
Bahrain a Bahraini Bahraini
Bangladesh a Bangladeshi Bangladeshi
Barbados a Barbadian, a Bajan Barbadian, Bajan
Belgium a Belgian Belgian
Belize a Belizean Belizean
Benin a Beninese** person Beninese
Bhutan a Bhutanese** person Bhutanese
Belarus a Belarussian Belarussian
Burma/Myanmar of Burma/Myanmar of Burma/Myanmar
Bolivia a Bolivian Bolivian
Bosnia and Herzegovina a Bosnian, a Herzegovinian Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Botswana a Botswanan Botswanan
Brazil a Brazilian Brazilian
Brunei a Bruneian Bruneian
Bulgaria a Bulgarian Bulgarian
Burkina Faso a Burkinabe, a Burkinan Burkinabe, Burkinan
Burundi a Burundian Burundian
Cambodia a Cambodian Cambodian
Cameroon a Cameroonian Cameroonian
Canada a Canadian Canadian
Cabo Verde a Cabo Verdean Cabo Verdean
Chile a Chilean Chilean
China a Chinese** person Chinese
Germany a German German
Cyprus a Cypriot Cypriot
Colombia a Columbian Columbian
Comoros a Comorian Comorian
Congo a Congolese** person Congolese
North Korea a North Korean North Korean
South Korea a South Korean South Korean
Costa Rica a Costa Rican Costa Rican
Côte d’Ivoire an Ivorian Ivorian
Croatia a Croatian Croatian
Cuba a Cuban Cuban
Denmark a Dane, a Danish person Danish
Djibouti a Djiboutian Djiboutian
Dominica a Dominican Dominican
Egypt an Egyptian Egyptian
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) an Emirati Emirati
Ecuador an Ecuadorian Ecuadorian
Eritrea an Etritrean Etritrean
Spain a Spaniard, a Spanish** person Spanish
Estonia an Estonian Estonian
The Unites States of America (USA) an American American
Ethiopia an Ethiopian Ethiopian
Fiji a Fijian Fijian
Finland a Finn, a Finnish** person Finnish
France a French** person French
Gabon a Gabonese** person Gabonese
The Gambia a Gambian Gambian
Georgia a Georgian Georgian
Ghana a Ghanaian Ghanaian
Greece a Greek Greek
Grenada a Grenadian Grenadian
Greenland a Greenlander Greenlandic
Guatemala a Guatemalan Guatemalan
Guinea a Guinean Guinean
Equatorial Guinea an Equatorial Guinean Equatorial Guinean
Guinea-Bissau a Bissau-Guinean Bissau-Guinean
Guyana a Guyanese** person Guyanese
Haiti a Haitian Haitian
Honduras a Honduran Honduran
Hong Kong a Hong Kongese** person Hong Kongese
Hungary a Hungarian Hungarian
The Faroe Islands a Faroese** person Faroese
The Marshall Islands a Marshallese** person Marshallese
Mauritius a Mauritian Mauritian
India an Indian Indian
Indonesia an Indonesian Indonesian
Iraq an Iraqi Iraqi
Iran an Iranian Iranian
Ireland an Irish** person Irish
Iceland an Icelander Icelandic
Israel an Israeli Israeli
Italy an Italian Italian
Jamaica a Jamaican Jamaican
Japan a Japanese** person Japanese
Jordan a Jordanian Jordanian
Kazakhstan a Kazakhstani Kazakhstani
Kenya a Kenyan Kenyan
Kyrgyzstan a Kyrgyz Kyrgyz
Kiribati a Kiribatian person Kiribatian
Kosovo a Kosovan Kosovan
Kuwait a Kuwaiti Kuwaiti
Laos a Lao Laotian, Lao
Lesotho a Mosotho, Basotho (plural) Basotho
Latvia a Latvian Latvian
Lebanon a Lebanese** person Lebanese
Liberia a Liberian Liberian
Libya a Libyan Libyan
Liechtenstein a Liechtensteiner of Liechtenstein
Lithuania a Lithuanian Lithuanian
Luxembourg a Luxembourger Luxembourg
Macao a Macanese** person Macanese
North Macedonia (Republic of) a Macedonian Macedonian
Madagascar a Madagascan Madagascan
Malaysia a Malaysian Malaysian
Malawi a Malawian Malawian
The Maldives a Maldivian Maldivian
Mali a Malian Malian
Malta a Maltese** person Maltese
Morocco a Moroccan Moroccan
Mauritania a Mauritanian Mauritanian
Mexico a Mexican Mexican
Micronesia a Micronesian Mikronesian
Moldova a Moldovan Moldovan
Monaco a Monacan, a Monégasque Monégasque
Mongolia a Mongolian, a Mongol Mongolian, Mongol
Montenegro a Montenegrin Montenegrin
Mozambique a Mozambican Mozambican
Namibia a Namibian Namibian
Nauru a Nauruan Nauruan
Nepal a Nepalese** person Nepalese
Nicaragua a Nicaraguan Nicaraguan
Niger a Nigerien Nigerien
Nigeria a Nigerian Nigerian
Norway a Norwegian Norwegian
New Zealand a New Zealander, a Kiwi (colloquial) New Zealand
Oman an Omani Omani
Uganda an Ugandan Ugandan
Uzbekistan an Uzbek Uzbek
Pakistan a Pakistani Pakistani
Palau a Palauan Palauan
Palestine a Palestinian Palestinian
Panama a Panamanian Panamanian
Papua New Guinea a Papua New Guinean Papua New Guinean
Paraguay a Paraguayan Paraguayan
The Netherlands, Holland a Dutch person Dutch
Peru a Peruvian Peruvian
The Philippines a Filipino Filipino
Poland a Pole, a Polish** person Polish
Puerto Rico a Puerto Rican Puerto Rican
Portugal a Portuguese** person Portuguese
Qatar a Qatari Qatari
The Central African Republic a Central African Central African
The Democratic Republic of Congo a Congolese Congolese
The Dominican Republic a Dominican Dominican
Czechia (formerly Czech Republic) a Czech Czech
Romania a Romanian Romanian
United Kingdom (UK) a Brit, a Briton, a British** person British
Russia a Russian Russian
Rwanda a Rwandan, a Rwandese** person Rwandan, Rwandese
St Lucia a St Lucian St Lucian
St Kitts and Nevis a Kittian, a Nevisian Kittian, Nevisian
San Marino a Sanmarinese** person Sanmarinese
St Vincent and the Grenadines a Vincentian Vincentian
The Solomon Islands a Solomon Isalnder Solomon
El Salvador a Salvadorean Salvadorean
Samoa a Samoan Samoan
São Tomé and Príncipe a São Toméan São Toméan
Saudi Arabia a Saudi Arabian, a Saudi Saudi Arabian, Saudi
Senegal a Senegalese** person Senegalese
Serbia a Serbian, a Serb Serbian, Serb
The Seychelles a Seychellois Seychellois
Sierra Leone a Sierra Leonean Sierra Leonean
Singapore a Singaporean Singaporean
Slovakia a Slovakian Slovakian
Slovenia a Slovenian Slovenian
Somalia a Somalian Somalian
Sri Lanka a Sri Lankan Sri Lankan
Sweden a Swede, a Swedish** person Swedish
Switzerland a Swiss** person Swiss
South Sudan a South Sudanese** person South Sudanese
Sudan a Sudanese** person Sudanese
Suriname a Surniamese** person Surinamese
South Africa a South African South African
Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) a Swazi Swazi
Syria a Syrian Syrian
Tajikistan a Tajik Tajik
Taiwan a Taiwanese** person Taiwanese
Tanzania a Tanzanian Tanzanian
Chad a Chadian Chadian
Thailand a Thai Thai
Tibet a Tibetan Tibetan
Timor-Leste an East Timorese** person East Timorese
Togo a Togolese** person Togolese
Tonga a Tongan Tongan
Trinidad and Tobago a Trinidadian, a Tobagonian Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Tunisia a Tunisian Tunisian
Turkmenistan a Turkmen Turkmen
Türkiye (formerly written as Turkey) a Turk Turkish
Tuvalu a Tuvaluan Tuvaluan
Ukraine a Ukrainian Ukrainian
Uruguay a Uruguayan Uruguayan
Vanuatu a Vanuatuan Vanuatuan
Vatican City a citizen of the Vatican City Vatican
Venezuela a Venezuelan Venezuelan
Vietnam a Vietnamese** person Vietnamese
Yemen a Yemeni Yemeni
Zambia a Zambian Zambian
Zimbabwe a Zimbabwean Zimbabwean
Scotland a Scot, a Scottish** person Scottish
England an English** person English
Wales a Welsh** person Welsh
Northern Ireland Northern Irish** person Northern Irish


*This list has been compiled using the official demonym for a country or territory. In some cases, inhabitants may prefer to identify themselves via an ethnonym (i.e. the name given to their ethnic group) instead of the name listed in the table above.

** We can’t use adjectives with the ending -ese/-sh/-ch/-ss as nouns in singular. Instead, we must say adjective + person/man/woman.

There is a Vietnamese woman in my English class.

However, we can use these adjectives as plural/collective nouns with the definite article to talk about the inhabitants of a country in general.

Food and family are very important to the Vietnamese.


List of countries taken from EU Interinstitutional Style Guide Annex A5.