List of Irregular Verbs in English Grammar

How to learn irregular verbs in English

English verbs have five main forms: infinitive, simple present, simple past, past participle and present participle. Regular verbs form the simple past and past participle with -ed. However, irregular verbs form the simple past and past participle differently. There are around 200 irregular verbs used in everyday English.

Unfortunately, it is not possible to immediately recognise an irregular verb, which makes it difficult to learn them. However, we can categorise irregular verbs into three main types: verbs where all three forms are the same, verbs where the past simple and past participle are the same, and verbs where each form is different.

Use Lingolia’s lists of irregular verbs to check which irregular verbs you need to know for a Beginner, Pre-Intermediate, Intermediate, Upper Intermediate or Advanced language exam. The verbs are organised by type to make it easier to learn them by heart.

To check the conjugation of a different verb, try Lingolia’s verb conjugator.

Irregular Verbs by Level

Irregular Verbs for Beginner

Below is a list of the most common irregular verbs in English for Beginner level organised by type.

Type 1

The infinitive, past simple and past participle are all the same (same – same – same)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
put put put
read read* read*

* the pronunciation of the infinitive read /ri:d/ becomes /red/ in the past simple and past participle forms

Type 2

The past simple and past participle forms are the same, but different to the infinitive (different - same - same)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
can could (no participle)
feel felt felt
find found found
get got got, gotten (US English)
have had had
hear heard heard
learn learnt, learned learnt, learned
leave left left
make made made
meet met met
pay paid paid
say said said
send sent sent
shall should (no participle)
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
teach taught taught
tell told told
think thought thought
understand understood understood

Type 3

The infinitive, the past simple and past participle are all different (different - different - different)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
be was/were been
come came come
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
give gave given
go went gone
know knew known
run ran run
see saw seen
show showed shown
speak spoke spoken
swim swam swum
take took taken
wake up woke up woken up
wear wore worn
write wrote written

Irregular Verbs for Pre-Intermediate

Below is a list of the most common irregular verbs in English that are new at Pre-Intermediate level organised by type. Go to the list above to see which irregular verbs you should already know.

Type 1

The infinitive, past simple and past participle are all the same (same – same – same)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
hit hit hit
hurt hurt hurt
let let let
shut shut shut

Type 2

The past simple and past participle forms are the same, but different to the infinitive (different - same - same)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
bring brought brought
build built built
catch caught caught
hold held held
keep kept kept
lose lost lost
may might (no participle)
mean meant meant
sell sold sold
send sent sent
spend spent spent
stand stood stood
win won won

Type 3

The infinitive, the past simple and past participle are all different (different - different - different)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
become became become
begin began begun
break broke broken
choose chose chosen
ride rode ridden
steal stole stolen
throw threw thrown

Irregular Verbs for Intermediate

Below is a list of the most common irregular verbs in English that are new at Intermediate level organised by type. Go to the lists above to see which irregular verbs you should already know.

Type 1

The infinitive, past simple and past participle are all the same (same – same – same)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
quit quit quit
split up split up split up
wet wet wet

Type 2

The past simple and past participle forms are the same, but different to the infinitive (different – same – same)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
bleed bled bled
burn burnt, burned burnt, burned
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dream dreamt, dreamed dreamt, dreamed
feed fed fed
fight fought fought
hang hung hung
kneel knelt, kneeled knelt, kneeled
lay laid lain
lead led led
lend lent lent
seek sought sought
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
spin spun spun
spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled
stick stuck stuck

Type 3

The infinitive, the past simple and past participle are all different (different – different – different)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
beat beat beaten
bite bit bitten
blow blew blown
fall fell fallen
grow grew grown
hide hid hidden
prove proved proven
ring rang rung
sew sewed sewn
shake shook shaken
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
speak spoke spoken
steal stole stolen
stink stank stunk
swell swelled swollen

Irregular Verbs for Upper Intermediate

Below is a list of the most common irregular verbs in English that are new at Upper Intermediate level organised by type. Go to the lists above to see which irregular verbs you should already know.

Type 1

The infinitive, past simple and past participle are all the same (same – same – same)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
bet bet bet
broadcast broadcast broadcast
burst burst burst
forecast forecast forecast
spread spread spread
sweat sweat, sweated sweat, sweated
wed wed wed

Type 2

The past simple and past participle forms are the same, but different to the infinitive (different – same – same)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
bend bent bent
breed bred bred
flee fled fled
leap leapt, leaped leapt
light lit lit
slide slid slid
speed sped sped
sting stung stung
strike struck struck
sweep swept swept
swing swung swung
weep wept wept
wind wound wound

Type 3

The infinitive, the past simple and past participle are all different (different – different – different)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
awake awoke awoken
bear bore borne
freeze froze frozen
rise rose risen
shrink shrank shrunk
sing sang sung
spring sprang sprung
swear swore sworn
tear tore torn

Irregular Verbs for Advanced

Below is a list of the most common irregular verbs in English that are new at Advanced level organised by type. Go to the lists above to see which irregular verbs you should already know.

Type 1

The infinitive, past simple and past participle are all the same (same – same – same)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
bid bid bid
cast cast cast
rid rid rid
shed shed shed
shred shred shred
shut shut shut
slit slit slit
thrust thrust thrust

Type 2

The past simple and past participle forms are the same, but different to the infinitive (different – same – same)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
bind bound bound
cling clung clung
creep crept crept
fling flung flung
grind ground ground
plead pled pled
shoe shod, shoed shod, shoed
sling slung slung
slink slunk slunk
speed sped sped
spit spat spat
string strung strung
wring wrung wrung

Type 3

The infinitive, the past simple and past participle are all different (different – different – different)

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
arise arose arisen
forsake forsook forsaken
rise rose risen
saw sawed sawn
shear sheared shorn
sow sowed sown
stride strode stidden
strive strove striven
tread trod trodden
weave wove woven